This finding is inconsistent with other assertions [ 21 , 34 ]. There was negative significant association between GII and life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and overweight and obesity, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate. The ratio of these rates in men and women is generally between 1 and 2. Little has been done to estimate gender inequalities in their related factors such as NCD mortality, education, and welfare indicators, particularly in low or middle income countries. Although gender inequality varies considerably across regions and sectors, there is evidence that, globally, women benefit less from rural employment, whether in self- or wage-employment, than men do.
There are five steps for computing the GII [ 27 ]. The term gender distinguishes women from men socially and culturally and relations of power between them [ 1 ]. Consistent definitions in these data facilitated comparisons across several countries and WHO regions, minimizing limitations associated with sample size and selection and information bias. Or even social - sometimes legal - restrictions that do not allow women to have any property or inheritance rights. The results of present study showed that GII was negatively associated with alcohol consumption rate ,. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, which was performed in , we used dataset regarding International Human Development Indicators including gender inequality index GII , life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and income in all countries worldwide reported by United Nations Development Programme UNDP [ 25 ]. The continuous independent variables including noncommunicable disease NCD death rates, prevalence of current tobacco smoking, high blood pressure and body mass index greater than 25, alcohol consumption rate, and cancer death rate used in the present study were estimated by World Health Organization WHO using standard methods to maximize cross-country comparability [ 28 ]. Our study demonstrates disparities in the mean of schooling among world countries. Why are NCD rates higher in men than in women? The explanation of indicators that were used by WHO is as follows: It promotes greater participation of women in public and political life, and encourages capacity building for women. London, England, Macmillan Press, Table 2 summarizes the mean of gender inequality index, life expectancy at birth, and education years by WHO regions. Distribution of gender inequality index worldwide, In fact, most rural women are unpaid family members. Hence, countries will need to focus on public health intervention and equal distribution of economic resources to reduce gender inequality in society. The GII can be calculated as follows: There are various reasons. For example, there are large discrepancies in employment status between the sexes in black South African adults [ 8 ]. One of them is the Cooperative Facility for Africa , which promotes cooperative development across the continent. Employment and training programmes that encourage young women from poor urban areas to try non-traditional professions can open up new opportunities and challenge gender stereotypes. Therefore, our purpose in this study was to investigate gender inequalities and their associated factors in world countries. In many of the studies inconsistent with our study, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in men than in women [ 41 , 42 ]. The third goal is, explicitly, to promote gender equality and empower women. Our results showed that there was a negative significant relation between the GII and life expectancy at birth, in accordance with results of previous studies.
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